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  • ICANN Installs Root Server Cluster in Singapore

    I am pleased to update our community on the installation of an ICANN Managed Root Server (IMRS) cluster in Singapore. This new cluster will help to increase the root server capacity for the Asia Pacific region and bolster the resiliency of the entire Root Server System....
  • What's New on the RDDS Roadmap?

    As part of an effort to keep the community informed about the evolution of policy and management of registration data, new information about the ICANN org's ongoing projects related to Registration Data Directory Services (RDDS) has been published. This roadmap, which is...
  • Chair’s Blog: Board Priorities Ahead of September Remote Workshop

    This week, the Board will be meeting remotely from 9 to 11 September to discuss and deliberate on several pressing issues. While the present circumstances continue to disrupt how the Board normally meets and conducts its business, it’s important that we keep our momentum...
  • ICANN OCTO Publications: Supporting Technical Engagement

    ICANN's Office of the Chief Technology Officer (OCTO) is tasked with the formidable mission: to help improve the technical posture of ICANN in the world. As part of this mission, the OCTO team creates and publishes a portfolio of research papers and technical briefings...
  • Working Toward a More Secure Domain Name System (DNS) Ecosystem

    The Domain Name System Security Facilitation Initiative Technical Study Group (DSFI-TSG) is now well underway and has completed its first major milestone: finalizing its charter and scope. Attacks on the DNS rarely impact only one actor in the Internet ecosystem and many...
  • How to Follow ICANN’s Government Engagement IGO Observations

    The Government Engagement (GE) function at ICANN org is responsible for the development and implementation of a global strategy to engage with governments and intergovernmental organizations (IGOs). The GE team, comprised of political issue-based subject-matter experts,...
  • Strengthening our Structure and Enhancing Collaboration

    In June, I shared several organizational changes intended to help us support our community by improving efficiencies, strengthening collaboration, and maximizing our resources. This evolution included giving Xavier Calvez, Senior Vice President and Chief Financial...
  • EPDP Phase 2 Team Publishes Final Report

    On behalf of the Expedited Policy Development Process (EPDP) Team on the Temporary Specification for generic top-level domain (gTLD) Registration Data, I am pleased to announce the publication of the Team's Phase 2 Final Report. The Final Report sets out the EPDP Team's...
  • The Asia Pacific Regional Plan for FY21-25 is Ready

    As a follow-up to my previous blog seeking feedback, I am pleased to announce that the Asia Pacific (APAC) Regional Plan for Fiscal Years (FY) 2021-2025 is now finalized. I am grateful for the input provided by the APAC community over the last few months of consultations,...
  • ICANN President & CEO Goals for Fiscal Year 2021

    The world around ICANN is changing, and ICANN needs to evolve with it. Each year, I work with the ICANN Board to develop my goals for the next fiscal year, and then work with the Executive team to build a plan to achieve them. We set goals to help the entire ICANN...
  • The Africa Regional Plan for FY21-25 – What it Means

    I am pleased to share with you ICANN's final Africa Regional Plan for Fiscal Years (FY) 2021-2025. The launch of the ICANN Strategic Plan for FY21-25 provided an opportunity to review and realign our engagement plan for Africa. Accordingly, the Global Stakeholder...
  • The Importance of ITHI to You, and How to Participate

    One way ICANN fulfills its mission of ensuring the stable and secure operation of the Internet's unique identifier systems is by monitoring and collecting Domain Name System (DNS) related data. For this purpose, ICANN has launched a number of data-collecting initiatives,...
  • Guidelines for Developing New ICANN Learn Courses

    In-person ICANN meetings and workshops may be on hold in light of COVID-19-related travel restrictions, but we are continuing to develop self-paced online learning opportunities hosted on ICANN Learn. Capacity development is a significant way to enhance engagement with...
  • Using All the Tools in the Toolbox for Meaningful Engagement

    The ICANN community’s commitment to its work during these difficult times is impressive. The COVID-19 pandemic has helped us realize that many of the tools we need are already in use, and it has pushed us to be creative with how we approach our work. As I outlined in a...
  • The Middle East Regional Plan for Fiscal Years 2021-2025 is Ready

    I am pleased to share the final ICANN Middle East Regional Plan for Fiscal Years 2021-2025 [PDF, 447 KB] and the Action Plan for Fiscal Year 2021 [PDF, 423 KB]. In a previous blog, I referred to the draft regional plan document that was posted for public comments, and we...
  • We All Have A Responsibility to Combat Systemic Racism and Injustice

    We’ve all witnessed the protests taking place around the world calling for equal justice and the end to systemic racism. These are core principles and global issues that ICANN strongly supports and are part of our very ethos. We have zero tolerance for discrimination of...
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — ????? — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."
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